During lunch, Paul Spudis gave a quite interesting, though extremely data rich, review of the various types of water signals found on the Moon in the past couple of years. Bottom line is that there is plenty enough water to support human bases.
Session 3: Closed Environment Life Support Systems? Chair: Taber MacCallum
Taber MacCallum, Paragon Space Development Corp. _Game Changing Development in Environmental Control and Life Support Systems ?_ /– Reviews biospheres such as Biosphere II /– Compares to ISS /– Complexity of systems is very challenging /– Not ready to make ECLSS that can work reliably for years at a time for a Mars trip. /– Need to test for at least as long as a mission. /– Series of prototypes will add up to a lot of time. /– State of the art isn’t good enough now for multi-year missions.
Q&A: /– Tests in sever enviroments like underwater or Antarctica would eventually be useful but now just doing it in a control area would be difficult. /– Plentiful energy makes the job a lot easier. E.g. more plants with greater growth is better.
?Dr. William Jewell, Professor Emeritus, Cornell University and Dr. Lee Valentine, Space Studies Institute _The Engineering Trade Space for a Robust Closed Ecological Life Support System: A Suggested Technology Road Map_ /– Presented by Lee Valentine /– Reviews closed system studies /– Easy but inefficient /– Physical systems on earth aid ECLSS requirements /— e.g. nitrogen fixation by lightning (~8%), air cleaning by rain, etc. /– Tech development has at least one hardest problem. /– For ECLSS the hard problem is regenerating nutrients from sewage and crop waste /– Proposed all biological ECLSS /— Waste recycling /– Assumptions: Gravity, plentiful light /– System could support a Bigelow Sundancer unit with 2 people /– Need some gravity to support separation of liquids and gas /– Water requirements for food production is much greater than needed by the crew /– ECLSS helps to understand earth systems better /– ECLSS needed to open solar system to settlement. /– Hybrid of biological and physio-chemical systems are needed. /– Start soon. Will require years to develop /– Start small /– Illumination quantity and quality needed.
Dr. Peter Curreri, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Michael Detweiler, Junction Solutions _Habitat Size Optimization of the O’Neill – Glaser Economic Model for Space Solar Satellite Production?_ /– Classic space colonization model. /– Deals with important economic issues /– Solves challenges of population growth and human extinction threats /– O’Neill advocated the large colony habitat in free space built with material from space, i.e. Moon and asteroids /– Glaser – solar power satellites for the colonies and for earth /– After development of manufacturing facility on the Moon and solar power satellites, after 20 years there is a big net payoff /– Avoid transport costs using people living permanently in space /– Shows space habitat designs from 1970s. /– Started to think a few years ago about what minimal size for sustainable habitat.. /– Homestead Bolo: Two spheres on a tether. /– 1g spin gravity /– Bolos provide shorter development time and shorter time to positive return /– 50 person crew builds Bolo habitat that could sustain ~370 people /– Breakeven in 25 years instead of 35 /– Might be able to stack up bolos over time and create the large O’Neill habitats.
Sherwin Gormly, Dynamac Corporation, NASA Ames Research Center, and Michael Flynn, NASA Ames Research Center _Membrane Based Habitat Wall Architectures for Evolving Structures and Comprehensive Resource Recycle in “Homestead” Stage Space Colony Development?_ /– Michael Flynn /– Struggled over failures to get large projects off the ground due to costs. /– Try to think of way to lower ECLSS cost by factor of 10 /– Membrane wall needed to protect against radiation. /– Use that for water wall for the ECLSS /– Gradually over the course of a mission the water is gradually replaced by solid waste. /– Laminate blanket with patchwork of water bags. /– Already have necessary technologies separately /— Direct osmotic concentration (DOC) /— Osmotic distillation /— Light weight contingency – water recovery apparatus /— Forward osmosis (FO) power /— Off shore algae growth systems /– Lot of small bags that are worked through /– Eventually bags become solid structure that can be used for rad protection. /– Shows concept with a Bigelow type habitat /– Wall FO Bag /– Might make them transparent and grow algae inside the bags. /– Feasibility study funded through NASA IPP grant
FAQ – All speakers /– Wall FO Bag not totally passive. Will need pumps, etc. /– Current habitat economic models require SBSP to support large colonies. /– Need to have mix of bateria in digesters to be robust against disease. /– Why are ECLSS constantly being restarted? No consistent support with long term goal.